LESSON NOTE ON GOVERNMENT – SSS 2
Nationalist movement is an association of people with common interest who organize themselves to resist political and cultural domination, and engage in a struggle for independence.
There were nationalist movement in Nigeria and in the whole of West African sub region. The movements played significant roles in West African states including Nigeria, in influencing them towards the struggle for independence.
NATIONALIST MOVEMENT IN THE BRITISH WEST AFRICA
1. NATIONAL CONGRESS OF BRITISH WEST AFRICA (NCBWA)
NCBWA was formed in 1920 by Joseph Casely Haford of Gold Coast (Ghana) and Dr Akinwande Savage of Nigeria
Its aims and objectives are as follows
I. Assembly representatives should be chosen by election
II. Africans should be involved in the administration.
III. Demand for self-determination.
IV. Trained and qualified lawyers should be the ones handling judicial matters.
V. Advocacy for press freedom.
VI. Establishment of universities in West Africa.
NCBWA was able to organize a unified front involving four British colonies which sent a delegation to London in 1920 to present a number of demands opposing the administration of British West Africa.
ACIEVEMENTS OF NCBWA
I. Introduction of elective principle.
II. Establishment of higher institutions such as Fourah Bay College, Yaba College and Achimota College in Gold Coast, Nigeria and Sierra Leone respectively.
III. Election of Africans into the legislative council.
IV. Establishment of political parties.
V. Establishment of newspaper presses.
NCBWA collapsed due to two things:
a) Opposition by traditional rulers who saw them as potential rivals.
b) Divide and rule tactics by the colonial governors.
2. WEST AFRICAN STUDENT UNION (WASU)
WASU was formed on 7th August 1925 by Ladipo Solanke – led group of 24 law students in London. It was an association of students from various West African countries who were studying in the United Kingdom.
The Union succeeded in bringing West Africans schooling or living in the UK together against the exploitative tendencies of the British administration. Its published journal, WASU was widely read by West Africans in diaspora.
3. NIGERIAN YOUTH MOVEMENT (NYM)
NYM was the first Nigerian nationalist organization. Formally known as Lagos Youth Movement, founded in 1934 by Ernest Ikoli, Dr J.C. Vaughan and Samuel Akinsanya. It later became National Youth Movement in 1935 and it membership increased to include H.D. Davies, Dr Nnamdi Azikwe, Sam Akintola, Obafemi Awolowo, and others.
NYM was able to compete with NNDP in the control of political activities in Lagos. It won all the seats allocated to Lagos in the Legislative Council.
Objectives of NYM include:
a) To consolidate all the regions into a unified nation.
b) To pressurize the government till they award scholarship to Nigerians studying abroad.
c) To demand equal opportunity for both Nigerians and foreigners.
d) Better pay for civil servants who were citizens.
e) Higher level appointment for Africans in the civil service.
The collapse of NYM was due to tribal-related tussle in the leadership position of the party. This led to the resignation of Dr Nnamdi Azikwe and Sam Akinsanya.
4. PAN AFRICANISM
Pan Africanism is a worldwide movement that aims to encourage and strengthen the bond of solidarity among all people of African descent. In addition, it could be described as an ethical system which traces its origin from ancient times, and promotes values that are the products of African civilization including the struggles against slavery, racism, colonialism, and neocolonialism.
ACHIEVEMENTS OF PAN AFRICANISM
I. Creation of nationalism consciousness in Africans.
II. Articulation of Africans’ demands and support in the struggle for independence.
III. Liberation of Africans from slavery, colonialism and other forms of oppression.
Proponents of pan-Africanism include W.E.B. Dubois, Marcus Garvey, Malcom X, George Padmore, Haile Salassie, Julius Nyerere, Ahmed Sekou Toure, Kwame Nkruma, Thoas Sankara, Muammar Gaddafi, and so on.
METHODS USED BY NATIONALIST LEADERS IN THEIR STRUGGLE AGAINST BRITISH ADMINISTRATION IN WEST AFRICA
- Newspaper press.
- Strikes, boycott, and protests.
- Seminars and symposia.
- Constitutional conferences.
- Political parties.
NATIONALISM IN NIGERIA
Nationalism may be defined as passionate awareness of belonging to…click to continue
- (a) Explain what is meant by nationalism.
- (b) List and explain the factors that led to the rise and growth of nationalism.
- (c) Describe nationalist movement.
- (d) Discuss some of the nationalist movement in West Africa.
- (e) What were the modes of operation of nationalists?